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.v. 1 



February 4,1946 


The VSO was created by its member agencies to serve the nation jointly and coopera- 
tively in a time of national emergency. It later was made the channel, by means of VSO-Camp 
Shows, through which the entire amusement industry could make its special contribution to 
the entertainment and morale of the armed forces. 

By its contract with the Federal Government, and still more through five years of 
financing by the whole American people who have given $200,000,000, the VSO in its own 
right was made responsible for a large area of service, complicated but well defined. 

It is fitting that a public report be rendered, giving an account of stewardship, reflecting 
the over -all organization as its exists at the moment, and calling attention both to elements of 
the shifting scene and to factors which must control the future course of VSO. 

Because the war is won but not yet over for millions of men, and because the transition 
from war to peace is a hazardous span in time, the report is rendered in some detail. 


USO in the Year of Victory page 5 

List of Club Activities... . _ page 7 

USO-Camp Shows _ . . — page 16 

Convalescent Services . page 23 

Volunteers page 25 

After V-J Day_ _ page 28 

The Future of USO ! page 28 

Financial Statements _ page 32 

Statistical Charts page 34 

National Council Members ■. _ page 36 

Officers and Board of Directors page 37 


By direction of the War Department and con- 
currence of the Navy, welfare and recreational 
activities of the Bed Cross and USO were outlined 
definitely to prevent overlapping of effort. 

The Bed Cross was recognized as the "sole non- 
military agency to operate with an expeditionary 
force," upon request of the Army. This kept USO 
clubs from Africa, Europe, China, Japan and 
other war theaters. 

Outside continental United States, the Army 
and Navy dealt with the USO for Hawaii, Pan- 
ama, Newfoundland, Bermuda, the Caribbean, 
Alaska and, in general, South America, with the 
Philippines added in 1945 after they were lib- 

USO-Camp Shows, Inc., was recognized as the 
sole agency for the procurement of professional 
theatrical talent in the United States for showing 
to troops overseas, performing only on military 
posts and in war theaters. 

Late in December, 1945, USO-Camp Shows 
was entrusted also with the task of providing 
shows for 97 hospitals of the Veterans Admin- 
istration, as well as the hospitals operated by the 
Army and Navy which are gradually being shifted 
to Veterans Administration control. 


To the 14,000,000 men and women who have served or are serving in the armed forces of the 
United States, USO means a billion "touches of home" — an infinite variety of personal services 
ranging from the routine provision of writing paper to the convalescent care provided by USO 
hostesses specially trained to help wounded veterans readjust to civilian life. 

Taking stock of these services on its fifth anniversary, USO finds that at its peak of activity, 
it was serving 1,000,000 people a day in one capacity or another, running up to more than 
1,100,000,000 the total served since the organization started, February 4, 1941. 

The number of operations, such as clubs, lounges and similar activities, reached a high point 
back in March of 1944, a total of 3,035. As training camps closed and the men went overseas this 
number declined, but the over-all volume of work increased. 

The five-year peak of activity and cost came after peace in Europe and before the surrender of 
Japan. Redeployment of troops reopened many camps, doubled or vastly increased loads at various 
seaport cities, and produced movement of warships and vessels loaded with soldiers on so huge a scale 
the demand for service taxed USO to the limit. Expenditures climbed to $5,800,000 a month. 

Current Operations 

Even today five months after V-J Day — USO must 
still operate on a basis of $4,000,000 a month. Over- 
all operations, aside from USO-Camp Shows, are 
carried on through nearly 2,000 units. These include 
1282 clubs, nearly half of which are located near 
hospitals; 259 lounges and »ther services for men 
and women in transit; 82 mobile and maneuver units; 
144 USO offices and 200 USO Councils fas of Decem- 
ber 31, 1945). 

This means that even though USO has responded to 
requests of the Army and Navy in opening new clubs 
and other installations — such as in the Philippines. 
Newfoundland and Labrador where large bodies of 
men are being kept on duty — it has been possible to 
effect a net reduction of 1,068 operations. 

It is anticipated that before the end of 1946 the 
Army and the Navy will have completed their de- 
mobilization and will then be stabilized. A detailed 
study of the plans for domestic military installations 
of the Army Service Forces, Army Ground Forces, 
Army Air Forces, Navy and Marine Corps indicates 
that some 244 different communities will be subject 
to a major military impact beyond 1946 and perhaps 


Time-on-their-hands is turned to 
work-with-their-hands by crafts 
directors in USO clubs. Plexiglass 
work, such as RM 1 /c Harry 
Bauer is doing at an Astoria, 
Ore., USO club, is currently pop- 
ular with service men, along with 
ceramics, wood carving and 
leather work. 

Domestic Club Operations 

What types of services are being provided by USO? 
Those listed on the facing page are taken from actual 
club reports. They might normally be expected of 
USO. But every club director gets requests for many 
other services that are not listed in the program guides 
— and more often than not he manages to carry out 
the assignment. Like the time a hurricane hit Key 
West. Fla., and the USO was called on to house hun- 
dreds of storm-refugees, even to providing candle- 
heat, the only kind available for warming up babies' 
formulas. Or the day a group of GI's en route to a 
distant Pacific Island asked for 1,000 packs of as- 
sorted seeds so they could grow their own vegetables 
overseas. Or the Oceanside, Cal., club that checked a 
Marine's four-foot snake for the evening, because the 
Marine wanted to go to the movies while the snake 

Sometimes the service begins before there is a club. 
The manner in which one club was constructed is 
typical of how community spirit has been crystallized 
into action through USO. This was in San Jose, Cal., 
early in the war. When representatives of the different 
elements in the community met to lay plans for a 
much-needed USO club, the trade union people said 
the best way they could help was by contributing 
their own labor. So they got together — the car- 
penters, the plumbers, the plasterers, the painters and 
other skilled workers in the building trades. Net re- 

sult: one completely-furnished, fully -equipped model 
club house. Time of construction: one day. 

There are many interesting stories to tell of the 
way in which the American people voluntarily picked 
up a war-time job and carried it out magnificently 
through these USO community activities. The town of 
Sayre, Pa., for example. One of the proudest days of 
Sayre's war-time record of serving 577,728 service 
men was, paradoxically enough, the time they closed 
the doors of their Valley USO Club and went home 
when they heard a troop train was due! But there 
was a reason. 

It was one night last June, when the USO canteen 
had been told to stand by for three trainloads of the 
86th Division, fresh from the ETO and en route to 
Tokyo. The three trains steamed into the station and 
pulled out. The USO people started to close up for 
the night when three more trains steamed in, crammed 
with hungry, thirsty, leg-cramped Black Hawks. By 
midnight, when the sixth train left, the USO pantry 
was emptied, all available private refrigerators and 
restaurants had been tapped, and cookie jars and milk 
bottles were drained. 

"When we heard a seventh train was due, we just 
locked up and went home in a hurry," the chairman 
reported. "AH we had left to serve was water." 

Sayre's entire population just tops the 7,500 mark, 
but the monthly door count for the town's canteen 
was often triple that. 


Amateur dramatics 
Amateur nights 
Apple ducking 

Art exhibits 
Art materials 
Arts and crafts 
Astronomy clubs 
Auction nights 
Bag checking 

Ballroom dances 
Bamboo craft 
Band concerts 

Barbecue parties 
Barn dances 
Bean races 
Bible classes 
Bibles presented 

Bingo parties 

Birthday parties 
Block printing 
Boat trips 

Book reviews 
Books to read 
Bridge games 
Camera loans 

Camp fire circles 


Card game lessons 
Cartooning classes 
Chain dinners 
Charcoal sketching 

Child day camps 
Children's days 
Children's story hour 
Church transportation 
Chinese checkers 
Christmas parties 
Circus dances 

Civil Service advice 
Club newspapers 

Coconut craft 
Coed picnics 

Community sings 
Contest prizes 

Conveying messages 
Cooking contests 
Cooking lessons 
Costume balls 


Cowboy dances 


Crossword puzzles 
Dark rooms 
Date bureaus 

Deep sea Ashing 
Discussion groups 
Door prizes 

Doughnut clubs 
Dramatic groups 
Dunking contests 
Easter prayers 
Employment advice 

Fashion shows 
Father's days 
Fellowship hours 

Financial Aid 
Fireside hours 
First Aid classes 
Fishing parties 

Flag Day celebrations 
Flower clubs 

Formal dances 
Fortune telling 

Frame making 
Glee clubs 
Go-to-church groups 

Group guidance 
Guest nights 
Gym classes 
Hair-styling classes 
Halloween parties 
Hamburger fries 
Handwriting analysis 
Harmonica contests 
Hay rides 

Health clinics 
History classes 
Hobby corner 

Home hospitality 
Home hours 
Horseback riding 
Horseshoe pitching 
Hospital visits 
Housing service 
Hula dances 
Hunting parties 
Hymn sings 

Hypnotism exhibitions 
Ice cream sappers 
Ice skating 
International groups 
Jam sessions 

Jiu jitsu instruction 
Joke telling contests 
Journalism study 
Juke box jamborees 
Kiddie checking 
Kitchen privileges 
Kn ick-knacks 
Knitting lessons 

Language classes 
Leathercraf t 

Legal advice 
Library service 
Light lunches 

Linoleum carving 
Literary clubs 

Location of people 
Lost and found 

Magic and trick clubs 
Make-up instruction 
Marsh m allow roasts 
Math lessons 
Medical assistance 
Mending service 
Miniature golf 
Minstrel shows 
Moonlight sails 
Mother's clubs 
Mother's days 

Music lessons 
Musical instruments 

Nature study 

New Year's parties 
News talks 

Nursery schools 
Nutrition study 

Oil painting study 
Outdoor dances 
Overnight lodgings 
Package wrapping 

Phone home prizes 
Photo supplies 
Photography classes 
Photography clubs 
Pianos to play 

Picture puzzles 
Pin tail on donkey 

Planning honeymoons 
Ping pong 

Pinochle tourneys 
Plane trips 
Plaster casting 

Plastic moulding 
Play reading 
Poetry hours 

Popularity contests 
Portrait sketching 
Pot luck suppers 
Pottery making 
Prayer books 
Pressing uniforms 

Puppets; Marionettes 
Public speaking 
Publicity classes 
Quiz programs 
Quoit games 
Badio making 
Badio shows 
Reading rooms 
Record making 
Recorded music 

Referrals to agencies 
Religious services 
Rest facilities 
Rlmmba lessons 

Roller skating 

Rosaries, medals, etc. 
Round table talks 
Bowing machines 
Savings service 
Scavenger hunts 
Science classes 

Scrapbook service 
Sewing buttons 
Sewing chevrons 
Sewing instruction 
Shaving material 
Shell craft 
Shipping packages 

Shoe shine equipment 

Shorthand- typ ing 
Shopping trips 
Shower baths 
Shu ffleboard 

Sightseeing tours 
Silhouette making 
Skee ball 


Sleigh rides 

Slide rule classes 
Snack bars 
Soft ball 
Song-guessing games 
Spaghetti feeds 

Special events 
Spelling bees 
Sports equipment 
Square dances 

Stainless steel work 
Stamp clubs 
Stunt nights 
Sunday breakfasts 

Supervised child play 
Surf fishing 

Swimming races 
Taffy pulls 

TaB story sessions 
Tap dance lessons 

Thanksgiving dinners 
Town Hall forums 
Transportation aid 
Treasure hunts 
Twilight vespers 
Veteran information 
Vocal concerts 

Vocational films 
Volley ball 
Waffle shops 
Waltz nights 

Washing and ironing 
Water color painting 
Water polo 
Wedding arrangements 
Weight lifting 

Wiener roasts 
Wood burning 
Wood carving 
Wood working 

Writing paper 
Writing rooms 



It is because individuals and organizations in a 
community cooperate in supporting and participating 
in USO activities that USO is able to render its multi- 
tude of services. Such cooperation ranges from the 
1 ,970 community organizations working together to 
make the USO program possible in Detroit, Mich., 
ond the 1,600 different groups cooperating in Los 
Angeles, to tiny hamlets like Pittsburg, Ca!., whose 
1 0,000 population has taken care of approximately 
900,000 service men in its USO centers. 

Community spirit rose to the emergency from the 
very start. There was Wendover Field, Utah . . . over 
1 2 communities nearby furnished the building mate- 
rials, equipment and manpower — with the aid of Air 
Forces personnel — to erect and put into operation a 
USO club in ONE DAY. To celebrate, they held a 
dance that same evening! (Pictures at left) 

Another "one-day wonder" was San Jose's USO 
hospitality house, pictured below, with all materials 
donated and organized labor giving its services free. 

Among countless other USO's offering going 
examples of what community spirit can achieve are 
Philadelphia's USO-Labor Ptaza, bui!t by labor con- 
tributed by AF of L and equipment from GO, and, at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., the magnificent USO Variety Club 
Canteen, which came into existence through the co- 
operation of the trade unions and the chamber of 

MORNING . . . NOON . . . NIGHT . . . 
From a desert to a donee in one day! 


TRAMP , . . TRAMP , , , TRAMP . . . Such was the grinding wear of Gl footgear on the floor of San Diego's Army & Navy 
Y.M.C.A.-USO Club, that the "ten-year" tile flooring had to be replaced in less than ONE year. Traffic in this club 
reached a new high in 1945 — just short of 8,000,000 for the year, or nearly equal to the ratal manpower in the 
Army of the United States as of V-E Day. Average DAILY attendance amounted to more than the war strength of 
an infantry division, two battleships, and a cruiser added together! 

The other extreme may be found in big-city clubs 
that handled huge volumes of men, like Philadelphia's 
famous Benedict Club, where 30,000 men a month 
checked in for a night's sleep, a shower, swim, meal, 
game or dance. Or Honolulu's five-story downtown 
club that uses a ton of bananas and 250 gallons of 
ice cream every day for banana splits alone, and 
where one man is kept busy all day long doing nothing 
but breaking eggs. 

In the big cities the question was how to keep a 
lonesome service man from getting lost among the 
crowds of local citizenry. In places like Jacksonville, 
N, C., where the population is 873 and the Marines 

from Camp Lejeune ran up a total of 90,260 visits 
to the USO club last August alone ... in such places, 
the question often was how to keep the town from 
getting lost among the service men. 

For Troops in. Transit 

Since the inception of USO, some 19.500,0(10 indi- 
vidual services have been given by 181 USO Travelers 
Aid Service units which have operated at some time 
during this period. Peak month was July 1944, when 
136 units gave 661,000 services, almost twice as many 
as 115 units in December 1945. 


"Call me at 12 — " registers PM 3/c Walter Babcock of 
Haverstraw, N. Y., seeking a few hours' sleep at the 
Syracuse USO transit lounge. 

Also at transportation terminals and junctions are the 
USO Troops-in -Transit lounges. Since Pearl Harbor, 
more than 70,000,000 attendances have been registered. 
Of this total more than one-third — 28*4 million — 
were clocked during 1945. Attendance has doubled in 
many spots since V-J Day. Tentative figures show De- 
cember 1945 to be the peak month, with close to 3 
million service men and women using the 145 lounges. 
Unchallenged champion is the lounge in Pennsylvania 
Station, New York City, with a record of more than 
5% million visits. Even the lounge with the smallest 
attendance has served nine thousand service men and 
women in two and a half years. 

Coffee, doughnuts and cigarettes, an easy chair, are 
the first demands of troops in transit as they pass 
through USO lounges on their way home, on pass, or 
just waiting to catch a bus back to camp. There is an 
endless procession night and day; they read maga- 
zines and newspapers, play a radio or phonograph, eat, 
rest, work jig-saws, play chess and checkers; are 
given tickets free for movies and radio broadcasts. 

Relatives are a large part of the scene too: the 
mother and father who want to wait four hours in the 
lounge to see their son; the soldier's wife and baby 
with no place to sleep; the distressed father who came 
1,500 miles to see his son, but doesn't know what 
company or camp the boy is in; the mother whose son 
boarded a train for the West Coast an hour before 
she arrived. 

(At right) Sea-legs get their bearings when the Atlantic 
City Travelers Aid charts the right course for this Navy 
father and his family. 

Ctubs-an-W keels 

Up to December 31, 1945, men and women in the 
armed forces were the recipients of some form of 
Mobile Service in 50,000,000 instances. 

By the end of 1945, visits by mobile units to armed 
force installations of all kinds averaged 3,775 a month 
and the number of service people being served monthly 
was 548,000. Materials distributed during the last six 
months of 1945 exceeded 6,000,000 USO envelopes 
and postcards, 60,000 religious articles, 36,000 books, 
150,000 magazines, 78,000 games and (greatly 
needed) 1,944,000 books of matches. 

Aside from the usual first-run movies, dances, re- 
corded shows, radio, games and such, mobile unit 
workers did some odd things: sponsored a possum 
hunt, taught GFs in the jungles how to tell poisonous 
snakes from harmless reptiles, assisted an Army search- 
ing party hunting a crashed blimp, served coffee and 
cigarettes to service men fighting forest fires, gave 
movie shows in a Navy fire-crash boat, hauled fire- 
wood for miles to USO clubs, chopped Christmas 
trees, taught service men and women how to ski, skate, 
swim and fish. 

Inaugurated to serve troops on maneuvers and iso- 
lated garrisons and outposts, this service has already 
been cut more than 50% and for some time has been 
confined largely to service to the Coast Guard and to 
the American guards at prisoner of wax locations. This 
work will be further reduced speedily, and probably 
terminated this year. 


(Above left) In the Skagway, Alaska, USO, Mrs. Fred 
Nord's chevron-sewing skill brings "a touch of home" to 
Corp. Benito Trevino of Kansas City, Mo. 

USO Overseas 

As men and women of the Army and Navy were 
scattered over the islands and various countries of the 
Western hemisphere, USO followed. Its Overseas units 
put up the familiar red-white-blue USO club sign in 
Hawaii, Alaska, Canada, Newfoundland, Bermuda, 
Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Trinidad, Canal Zone, 
various Caribbean Islands, Brazil, isolated spots along 
the coast of South America, and the Philippines. 

The Army, Navy and Marines were in strange lands. 
They were lonely; they were homesick: they wanted 
something to do and think about when off duty. To 
meet these needs USO had a peak total of 178 Over- 
seas units operating. As millions of men returned 
home, the number of Overseas units was reduced until 
at the end of 1945 there were 144 going. Even with 
men being redeployed and discharged, the 1945 over- 
seas attendance figures showed an average of 3,000,000 

In some overseas areas entertainment started with 
hurriedly assembled variety shows, and developed into 
real entertainment units of GI and junior hostess 
talent. Those who couldn't sing or act constructed stage 
settings, served as carpenters and electricians. 

The most extensive USO Overseas club operation 
was in the Hawaiian Islands, where every Pacific 
fighting man landed at one time or another. At peak, 
there were 76 such clubs and services in operation. 
At the end of 1945, 27 of these clubs and units re- 
mained open. All but 12 clubs planned to close by 
December 1946. 

(Above right) On the roof of one of Manila's six USO 
clubs, above the war-scarred city, two G!'s chat with 
Filipino junior hostesses. 

In Hawaii, USO was given six weeks early in 1945 
to erect two clubs fori the Fifth Marines, on their way 
back from Iwo Jima. The Army, Navy and Seabees 
pitched in. When the transports arrived, the clubs 
were ready. 

For sustained operations, the list is led by the pier- 
side shows given on both sides of the Canal Zone to 
"'floating audiences" of soldiers, sailors and marines 
— a 24-hour-a-day schedule, seven days for five weeks. 
None of these men could leave their ships. They sat 
or stood or swung over the rails, life-boats and masts. 
They hung from stanchions and shouted and whistled, 
applauding the untiring efforts of amateur and pro- 
fessional show people. 

One of the most thrilling and exhaustive services 
performed by USO, with able assistance from Red 
Cross, Army-Navy and local volunteers was in the 
Zone after V-E Day. Official word came that nearly one 
million men would be coming through the Canal — 
battle weary, redeployed troops — American troops on 
the way to the Pacific. The services of the Cristobal 
USO Club were commandeered by General George 
Brett, who erected a barricade to keep out everyone 
except troops from Europe. The Army even chopped 
six windows out of the club walls to make room to 
feed the men; here alone more than 100,000 men were 

In other places in the Zone food and coffee were 
served and entertainment devised for more than half a 
million men. Even two transports full of Canadian 
and Australian troops, all of whom had been war 
prisoners for at least four years, were welcome. Army 


(Above) American service women, once called the 
country's "forgotten men," Kave not been forgot- 
ten by USO. Special clubs, such as the Hui Welina 
in Hawaii, provide "a home away from home" for 
our women in uniform. 

(Left! Formerly a Japanese-owned department 
store, Honolulu's Victory Club is one of the busiest 
USO operations in Hawaii. Five stories high, it has 
accommodated as many as 447,000 attendees in 
a single month. 

hangars were taken over. Some hostesses and enter- 
tainers worked 20 hours a day. There were continuous 
movie shows. With V-J Day, the process reversed itself 
and USO pitched in and granted every possible wish 
of 150,000 sailors and marines coming home from the 

Clubs in the Philippines 

General MacArthur's first concern on liberating the 
Philippines was for clubs where the tired fighting 
men could rest and relax. But Manila was a tragic city, 
just dust, shelled and blown-up buildings, piles of 
rubble. Batangas was another devastated area and so 
was Taal. Quickly buildings were rebuilt or patched 
up; some materials shipped from the States and Ha- 
waii ; USO personnel flown in. Finally ten clubs, some 
of them makeshift, most of them windowless and door- 
less with walls pock-marked by shell-fire, were in 
operation. At least there were chairs, coffee, hot dogs, 
some ice cream and movies. 

The clubs were jammed with service men imme- 
diately. Four hours after one club had opened, its 
Stateside Hometown Register had 750 registrants, with 
every state in the Union represented. Attendance for 
December alone totalled 643,000 for nine of the ten 
clubs in operation. 

In other outposts GI's were taught languages — 
Spanish, Tagalog, Portuguese, native dialects. In 
Natal, Brazil, 5,000 to 7,000 eggs (sometimes with 
bacon) were served weekly in two USO Clubs. GI's 
stationed on the Amazon River were taken up river by 
boat so they could swim in unpolluted waters. Alli- 
gator hunting parties in native boats (kayucas) was a 
pastime in Cristobal, C. Z. 

Service men in Newfoundland learned "squidjig- 
ging" — dropping a heavy fish line with large hook 
and a weight and bringing in cod, which they cooked 
at USO. A unit of entertainers was flown by plane to 
Galapagos Island. The GI's, each with a pet goat sit- 
ting at his side, watched the show in the rain for three 
hours. Gold-panning trips were held in Alaska. GI's 
in Brazil learned all about rubber plantations. 

It has already been possible to effect radical reduc- 
tions in USO operations in Brazil, the Antilles, Pan- 
ama and Hawaii. So far as we know now, there will 
remain through 1947 two important clubs in Alaska, 
two in Newfoundland, two in Bermuda, three in 
Puerto Rico, two in Cuba, one in Trinidad, six in 
Panama, eight in Hawaii and ten or more in the 

Cold statistics can actually paint a glowing pic- 
ture: — -during the four years (1942-45) of overseas 


100 Japanese- American Hostesses" 

That was the S.O.S. sent out by the Nyack, 
N. Y., USO Club, when a contingent of Nisei 
troops stopped in for their final leave before 
shipping out. Nyack wanted to give them a 
farewell party. 

Within a few hours, 1 1 2 girls were on 
their way from New York City and, as the 
pictures show, the party was a success. "A 
grand time and some swell memories," wrote 
Pvt. George fnai, one of the soldiers. "We're 
on our way now and hope to return soon." 

Yes, these men were on their way — as 
replacements for the badly shot-up 1 00th 
Infantry Battalion. You've heard about the 
famous 100th Battalion ... Of the 1,200 
Japanese-American doughboys in the out- 
fit, 1,000 earned the Purple Heart, 44 the 
Silver Star, 3 3 the Bronze Star, 9 the Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross and 3 the Legion of 
Merit Medal! . . . the same fighting unit that 
came forward with the first contributions to 
the National War Fund in Hawaii, when the 
men were in training there. 

operations for all activities, attendance was checked 
at 104,819,151. 

For Service II omen and Service Wives 

"I'd just be lost without the USO," said a young 
wife in Dover, Delaware, attending an Army wives 
luncheon. Her companions echoed her statement. This 
group, one of many throughout the country, prepared 
a weekly get-together luncheon. Wliile they congre- 
gated in the dining room, their babies slept in a row 
of perambulators in the club lobby. During the war 
years, many women who wished to keep their families 
together followed their husbands to camp towns and 
ports of embarkation. Some settled there temporarily, 
some permanently, waiting and hoping for their hus- 
bands 1 return. Others have joined their men at posts 
where they are scheduled for lengthy duty. 

In all these cases the wives have been able to look 
to USO for the only recreation and companionship 
they could receive in a strange town. Help with travel 
planning, information on housing, play-pens for chil- 
dren, arts and crafts classes, discussion groups, layette 
clubs, and the development of other social groups, has 
been the tangible contribution to wives of men in the 

From the Nyack, N. Y., USO "Chins Up!" Club to 
the "Foreign Legion" group in the South — whose 
members were all wives of service men overseas — to 
the "Ladies-in-waiting Club" of Albuquerque, New 

Mexico, and the "Heirborne Division" of the Rock- 
ingham, N. C. USO, young wives have found compan- 
ionship and courage in the company of other wives 
living under the same strained and temporary condi- 
tions of wartime. 

Today they are benefiting from the USO educa- 
tional program for wives. Materials sent from USO 
are used for discussion groups to help the young wife 
to understand her husband and herself, and to plan 
intelligently for making or rebuilding a home. And 
these special USO services are valued by the men as 

"Just one glimpse of flowered wallpaper is enough 
to make me feel at home." This longing cry of a 
young Wac, living with thousands of others in mili- 
tary barracks, typifies the contribution the USO makes 
to women in uniform. In special clubhouses in Wash- 
ington, Seattle, Los Angeles, Hawaii and other places, 
and in special rooms gaily decorated with flowered 
wallpaper and chintz curtains, and with cosmetic bars 
and lots of space for washing and ironing, USO tries 
to make a place for homelike living for young service 
women off-duty. 

USO and War Production 

During wartime USO services in some 200 indus- 
trial communities helped maintain the morale of men 
and women working in the great war plants and living 
in dangerously over-crowded boom towns. 

lAt right) Religious and educational activities 
receive the same emphasis in USO clubs as they 
do in the average American home. Here, at a 
USO in Taunton, Mass., Cpl. 1/5 George Eiff, 
stationed at Camp Miles Standish, devotes 
some of his off-duty time to the reading of the 

(Below, left) This Well-Baby Clinic at the former 
industrial USO club in Buchanan, Mich., shows 
interracial harmony in action. Red, white and 
black are the colors of the smiling faces pic- 
tured here. As changing needs cause the with- 
drawal of operations from certain areas, USO 
frequently finds that its work is carried on by 
the community Itself. Such was the case in 
Buchanan, whose citizens saw in the facilities 
established by USO a valuable social legacy. 

Recreation at USO cooking classes and teas, com- 
munity sports programs, arts and crafts work, "state 
night" parties helped to offset the fatigue and loneli- 
ness of newcomers in war plant communities. Actual 
program costs were largely assumed by the war 
workers themselves. 

USO provided for the whole family unit — not just 
for the working members alone. San Diego's USO 
organized the Junior Commandos to take care of the 
natural exuberance of lively youngsters. Buchanan. 
Mich., had a baby clinic at the USO. Services such 
as these were multiplied many times over. 

Atomic bomb workers managed to relieve some of 
the pressure of work and strain of complete isolation 
and secrecy, thanks to recreation facilities provided 
by USO in two major construction areas near Knox- 
ville, Tenn., and Pasco, Wash. 

With the war won, USO decided that its industrial 
work should properly be transferred to local responsi- 

bility. With the exception of several cases directly 
concerned with civilian employees of the Army and 
Navy themselves, this withdrawal will lie complete by 
the end of tin's month, February, 1946. 

Interracial Service 

USO has consistently adhered to its primary pur- 
pose of serving men and women in uniform irrespec- 
tive of creed or race. Its service to minority groups, 
and particularly to Negroes has steadily improved. 
Our insistence upon equivalent services for all has 
resulted in belter relationships, not only with the men 
and women in service but with communities as well. 

Educational and Religious Activities 

Aside from the professional entertainers of Camp 
Shows and the clerical and maintenance staffs, the 
mainspring of all USO service has been the relatively 
small nucleus of 3.000 professional workers. Nearly 



From a flier overseas — 

"Nothing has boosted our morale so much as the good lough 
we had." 

From a GJ service publication — 

"The curtain went down and the Gl went down the street 
thanking somebody for bringing him this bit of America, 
this wonderful land he calls his own." 

from a titter -~ 

"My brother . . . says ... it is so terribly lonely there that 
many of the fellows would have crocked up long ago if it 
weren't for the occasional diversion provided by the USO- 
Camp Shows." 

all of these have come from fields closely akin to USO, 
nearly all of them have graduated from intensive basic 
orientation courses, and all have been kept in con- 
tinuous touch with developments through Training 
Conferences and Staff Institutes. In 1945, 37 Regional 
Institutes and Refresher Courses were conducted in 
spite of transportation difficulties. There is of course 
a complete program of instruction and education for 
the volunteers. With the end of the war and with the 
return of hundreds of thousands of service men to civil- 
ian life, greater stress is now being placed upon rehabil- 
itation education. Information is offered to service men 
on all topics currently in their thinking — schools, 
vocations, trade and business opportunities, the GI Bill 
of Rights, — most of the work being carried on through 
clinics conducted by community experts. In support of 
these projects, the USO and its six member agencies 
have published or distributed more than 200 different 
booklets and pamphlets on educational and religious 

All of the clubs have continued to carry on religious 
programs, and many — where churches are unavailable 
— conducted services, hymn sings, Bible classes, and 
religious discussion groups, more than 70,000 religious 
programs having been recorded in the past twelve 
months. The Salvation Army itself functions practi- 
cally as a religious denomination. The YMCA has 
had a permanent staff of Protestant ministers engaged 
in developing closer cooperation with community 
churches and camp chaplains. Both the NCCS and the 
JWB have supplied important auxiliary chaplain ser- 
vice, where men of those faiths are not in sufficient 
numbers to warrant having their own Army or Navy 
chaplain. In such cases, the USO has paid no salaries 
but has covered the cost of rendering the service. 

The member agencies have continued to supply liter- 
ature of the three faiths, and some 20,000,000 religious 
articles have been annually distributed here and over- 
seas. During the year 1945 alone, more than 55,000 
pocket testaments and Bibles were issued by YMCA, The 
Salvation Army and YWCA; 500,000 mezuzahs and 
300,000 abridged prayer books were distributed by the 
National Jewish Welfare Board. Since the inception of 
USO, the National Catholic Community Service has 
furnished some 4,000,000 medals and crucifixes, and 
some 3,750,000 rosaries. Men coming out of battle with 
literally nothing have been supplied with fundamental 
religious articles. 


The American service man was in the open desert 
and in the dense jungle; in the frigid Arctic, and the 
Persian Gulf with the thermometer at 120 degrees. 
Yet to most of those places the troupers of USO-Camp 
Shows were sent to do their work — to give shows for 
the service people. Maybe the show consisted of an 
accordion player, or a unit of five variety performers, 
or it might have been a complete musical comedy cast, 
chorus and all. 

The USO-Camp Shows people performed in train- 
ing camps, and they put on shows within 500 yards of 
the fighting lines. They traveled by jeeps and peeps, 
by trucks and ducks, by tank and weapon carrier; by 
plane over the hump into China; in small boats 
through ocean storms to isolated beachheads and 
island outposts. They went to find the soldier, sailor 
and marine who was doing the fighting. 

In Italy once a whole show unit took official time 
out to undertake at its own risk a visit too perilous for 
official assignment. This was to a small town held at 
the moment by Americans, but which had changed 
hands five times in as many weeks. The men fairly 
cried with joy at the very sight of the troupe. 

USO-Camp Shows played or sang on stages of all 
kinds, from packing cases and truck platforms to the 
most famous European opera house. One play at 
Cape Gloucester in the South Pacific was presented on 
a 12 x 12 platform lighted by pocket flashlights. An- 
other show was staged on the deck of a warship under 
searchlights of a nearby destroyer. 

When the Clipper plane crashed in Lisbon harbor 
in 1943 one USO-Camp Show girl died, five were 
saved. Two of these went right along with their show 

(At right} The deck of the USS North Carolina, anchored in Boston Harbor, made 
a fine stage-setting for USO entertainers during Navy Day week last October. 


USO entertainers even traveled by breeches buoy. 
Johnny Gill of Novelaires troupe is swung aboard an 
LST grounded off Leghorn, Italy, 

Men of the 44th Tank Battalion, during a lull in their 
operations in southern Luzon, enjoy a field show 
brought right up to the front. 

schedule, the other three went back to shows for the 
service men just as soon as they were out of hospitals. 
In all, 17 Camp Shows performers were killed on duty. 

More than 4,900 entertainers went overseas in more 
than 700 units scheduled for tours lasting from three 
weeks to six months or more. 

700 Shows a Day 

These troupers gave more than 300,000 perform- 
ances overseas and in the United States, and at the 
time of peak action in 1945 THE CURTAIN WAS 
RISING ON 700 SHOWS A DAY for the benefit of 
service personnel. The shows have played to audiences 
totalling 172,886,314. 

Regardless of this figure, many of our service men 
and women never saw a USO-Camp Show, due to the 
sheer limitation in the number of performers avail- 
able, the vastness of the theater of war and insur- 
mountable transportation difficulties. 

Amazing mileage records were set up by some of 
the performers. One tap dancer covered 150,000 miles 
in eight overseas trips of 23 months; other show 
people went 100,000 miles in less than two years. 
They ate with the soldiers; sometimes they served 
them at mess; they sat and talked about home, help- 
ing break the grip of tragedy, or fatigue, or the lone- 
liness and boredom of isolated lookout and guard posts. 

One unit in the Pacific landed on an island to find 
that the soldiers knew just how many performers 
there were and had figured to the second that each 
soldier could sit and talk with an entertainer exactly 
three minutes by stop-watch. 

Stark drama followed some of the artists. One 
singer in a hospital near the Anzio beachhead was 
hailed by a soldier: "Will you sing for me? . . . Pm 
going to die. Will you sing 'Abide with Me' at my 
funeral?" Two days later, in the rain on Anzio beach, 
she fulfilled her promise. 

No amusement organization in the world ever 
produced so many shows so quickly, and sent them 
with so little loss of time to places where they were 
so badly needed. 

On the Normandy beachhead a show troupe of 43 
men and women landed as soon as the beach was 
secured. Two hours later they gave a two-hour show 
and then moved forward toward the front lines to give 
repeat performances. 

Other USO-Camp Shows followed our troops into 
42 different countries and dozens of islands. The 

troops never knew whether they were to hear a Met- 
ropolitan Opera star, or get a song and dance act; 
whether it was to be the "Foxhole Ballet" or "Okla- 
homa" or Shakespeare. 

Camp Shows were not limited to theatrical enter- 
tainment. The sports world contributed champions in 
baseball, football, tennis and practically every sport. 

Expansion After Victory 

By early 1945 USO-Camp Shows was functioning 
on a tremendous scale. It seemed like the maximum 
output. But then came V-E Day, and the program 
doubled . . . V-J Day a few months later and the 
program doubled once more! 

With cessation of fighting in Europe had come a 
call for "delivery at the earliest possible moment of 
all the entertainment that can be provided." Within 
90 days 60 new entertainment units composed of 665 
entertainers were assembled, produced, tried out, and 
shipped to Europe. 

Hardly had USO-Camp Shows officials recovered, 
when V-J Day came, and with it an even bigger en- 
tertainment order: 

The Army and Navy wanted 86 additional units 
for the Pacific, totalling 1,205 persons, all to be 
sent within 90 days! And they were. 

In the view of military authorities, any curtailment 
of Camp Shows programs "would in all probability 
be a serious blow to troop morale," to quote a War 
Department memorandum dated December 7, 1945 — 
exactly four years after Pearl Harbor. "The men in 
the Philippines (Manila not excepted), Guam, Kwa- 
jalein, Saipan, Okinawa and other island bases are 
particularly in need of this kind of entertainment," 
according to the memorandum. 

To illustrate the need in the Japanese occupation 
area, the War Department report continues: 

"The writer happened to be in Sasebo a few days 
later when (Danny) Kaye and (Leo) Durocher 
gave their single performance before the Ma- 
rines of the Fifth Amphibious Corps at that 
Japanese city. This show had three times been 
postponed by one day because Kaye and Du- 
rocher were literally stolen by entertainment 
starved units on their way down from Tokyo and 
obliged to put on completely unscheduled shows 
at these installations. Incidentally, this show had 
been the object of similar piracies at every point 
at which their plane put down between Honolulu 
and Manila — further evidence of the acute enter- 
tainment starvation so prevalent throughout the 


On a stage mounted on two trucks backed together, 
and protected by camouflage net, Jessica Lee danced 
for an armored unit iust behind the lines in France. 

Life was 1 /3 hoofing, 1 /3 truck travel and 1 /3 living 
out of helmets for Dolly Reckless and Mary Carnevale, 
trouping in Europe a month after D-Day. 

F.P.A., John Kieran and Clifton Fadiman of "Infor- 
mation Please!" went Gl and washed their own mess 
kits at the enlisted men's dish-laundry overseas. 

and hear and laugh, when a USO-Camp Shows unit hit their base. 

The Hospital Circuit 

Meanwhile, USO-Camp Shows was expanding its 
Hospital Circuit. By the end of October, 1945, a 
cumulative audience total of 3,372,000 in 192 sep- 
arate hospitals had been entertained through 15,360 
auditorium and ward performances. 

Their beneficial effect on patients has drawn many 
letters of commendation from Army and Navy doctors. 
One interesting example of physical aid came when a 
little comedienne was singing to a ward full of in- 
jured men. When her last note died away a young 
boy suffering from nervous paralysis forgot he 
couldn't use his arms, and applauded vigorously. 

Beginning March 1st USO-Camp Shows will also 
provide regular entertainment in Veterans Admin- 
istration Hospitals, of which there are now 97 in 
operation, and many more due to be opened soon. 
General Omar N. Bradley requested this extension of 
Camp Shows schedule in order to provide veterans 
with "suitable entertainment as a means of speeding 
their recovery." 

Hospital Sketching 

The Hospital Sketching program is one phase of 
hospital work, started in April, 1944, and reaching a 
peak during 1945. More than 180 illustrators and 

The Navy pipes down while Larry Adler pipes up! ... at Fleet Hospital 1 07, New Caledonia. 

portrait painters have done some 36,164 sketches of 
wounded service men. 

Doctors discovered that this activity had great med- 
ical and therapeutic value and frequently contributed 
to the patient's recovery. 

The original picture drawn in the hospital ward, 
together with negative and positive photostats, are 
sent free of charge to whoever is designated by the 
person sketched. 

Often the artists are told — "Don't draw me the 
way I am now. Draw me nice for Mom so she'll know 
I'm all right." 

Treasured possessions are these hospital portraits 

— especially in those homes where gold stars are 
substituted for blue. 


One of the most vital jobs for USO is with the war 

There are 527 USO clubs located near 168 military 
and naval hospitals. These clubs, which originally pro- 
vided a link between home and military service, are 
now frequently the convalescent veteran's first con- 
tact with the normal life of the civilian community. 

In these clubs there has been considerable adapta- 
tion of program, since different disabilities created 

Bob Hope and his gang are sharing a laugh in the 1 22nd Station Hospital, New Hebrides. 

Private Jimmy Cohen of New 
York City grins for two rea- 
sons: No, 1, he's back in the 
U. S. after going through 
France, Ardennes, The Bulge; 
No. 2, he has been joined by 
his son, David Lee Cohen, 
aged two, at the Atlantic City 


Many a wounded veteran 
learns that his disability need 
not cut him off irrevocably 
from normal civilian life. Here 
a soldier and Junior Hostess 
Lucille Massa play Chinese 
checkers at a Battle Creek, 
Mich., club outside Percy 
Jones Army General Hospital. 

different types oi needs. For example, in a USO club 
serving a hospital for blinded men, the furniture must 
always be placed in exactly the same place. And for 
amputees, USO club directors must see to it that they 
are not segregated, but are mixed with others in small 
groups; that the lighting oi the rooms is subdued; 
that there are comfortable chairs and couches avail- 
able, that if, for example, the activity is a dance it is 
cabaret style with small tables and chairs around; 
that slow music is played; and specially trained junior 
hostesses are provided. Self-confidence is encouraged: 
self-consciousness dispelled. 

Service wives have moved into these clubs in full 
force and frequently volunteer as hostesses. The Army 
encourages wives of hospitalized veterans to come and 
live nearby during the period of convalescence. They 
help bridge the gap between military and civilian life. 
Incidentally, this adds to the USO club load. It has 
become commonplace to find service wives in the club 
kitchen making up baby's formula or practicing on 
their cooking. 


From the beginning, USO has been essentially a 
volunteer organization. Not only was this the delib- 
erate design of USO, but it also was essential, if the 

organization was to discharge its responsibility of 
providing a channel by which many thousands of 
patriotic civilians would participate in the total war 

Before the United States became involved in the 
war, about 25,000 volunteers were on duty in the 
various clubs, lounges and allied activities. So great 
was expansion after the United States entered the 
war that the volunteer peak in June, 1943, found 
nearly thirty times as many volunteers registered — 
739,000 to be exact. Today's figure is about half a 

The greatest number of people offered their time 
and services to USO at the very time when the man- 
power shortage in American industry was greatest. 
Many worked a full day or night at a war industry, 
and then put in many hours at USO work. 

This service by volunteers ranged all the way from 
the charwoman who came to one club every Sunday 
morning to polish the tableware, to that of Governors, 
bank presidents and industrial leaders who served at 
snack bars or helped with personal advice. 

A widow who sells baked goods from a wagon all 
week taught service parties the art of sailing every 
Sunday on her sloop and an apparel shop manager 
turns out hundreds of pancakes every Wednesday night 
at a Chicago club. One USO volunteer arranges wed- 
dings and receptions for the girls who come out to be 


married to their sweethearts at a nearby base. Another 
has plucked well over a thousand uniformed wall- 
flowers from the wall by teaching them how to dance. 
Individual "specialist" workers have run up such 
astronomical accomplishments as processing 81,399 
crossword puzzles for enjoyment overseas, mixing 
12,000 waffles and baking 92.532 cookies. 

Volunteer service has changed and grown with the 
emergency. In the first USO days, the club and other 
work was comparatively simple. Food for snack bars, 
music for dances, girls for partners: comforts such 
as a place to sit and read, or write, or talk: showers 
with plenty of soap and towels. These met the great 
needs of the time. 

The year 1945 saw a great change in USO service. 
Men began returning from the war. Some were not 
wounded; others were. They needed more than a dance 
and a glass of milk. They required a more personal- 
ized service, more attention to their individual needs. 

So the USO volunteers were trained to meet this 
situation. More and more time was devoted to indi- 

Putting the gleam of welcome on the door of a USO 
club, Mrs. Harry Truman adds another hour to her USO 
service record. The First Lady is one of Washington's 
most faithful volunteer workers. The morning after V-J 
Day she was busy at work in the club's kitchen frying 

Serving 489,664 sandwiches in three years, senior 
hostesses at USO railway canteen of Danville, III. (pop- 
ulation 37,000) recorded some g astronomical statistics 
. . . 32,276 loaves of bread, 6,425 pounds of cheese 
and 1,539 gallons of peanut butter were used in the 
sandwiches they made. 

vidual talks, conferences and suggestions. More seri- 
ous opportunities were offered, such as classes in arts 
and crafts; "quiet" rooms for men who enjoyed 
classical music recordings; group discussions on cur- 
rent events, veterans' rights and business opportunities. 

Convalescent Care 

Convalescent men began coming to USO clubs, and 
they too had a special need. The staffs and senior and 
junior hostesses in more than 500 clubs near general 
hospitals were taught to overlook physical handicaps: 
to avoid asking questions which might offend a serv- 
ice man sensitive to the fact his wounds might keep 
him from normal living. 

Discharged service men and women, who had en- 
joyed USO clubs and other activities when in uniform. 

(Above, right) 

Almost every USO club in the country has one woman 
simply known as "Ma" to the boys. In the Philadelphia 
JWB-USO, "Ma" is Mrs. Israel Goldstein. 

The marines at Ft. Mifflin,, down the river from Philadel- 
phia, first gave her the title when she adopted the itttle- 
known ammunition base because it was overlooked by 
most organizations. Ma does things like that. In return, 
the marines adopted her — they get her down there 
every year to cut the Marine Corps birthday cake. 

She first served service men in the years after World 
War I, when she entertained and visited in the wards 
of the Philadelphia Naval Hospital. Now, on the board 
of the JWB-USO, Ma Goldstein plans and attends about 
fifteen parties a month at nearby and not-so-near bases 
and hospitals. That's equivalent to one every other night, 
and it's just a minimum. She also chauffeurs service 
parties, distributes gifts on holidays and works in the 
canteen itself every Saturday and Sunday night. The 
USO 5000-hour pin she earned is in addition to civilian 
defense and Red Cross service awards. 


THE MEN & W - R C^ 


If our couNig B 
Knd its allied 
Itheir comfort 


Birmingham's Mrs. Myrtle Feeney reports for volunteer 
work at the YMCA-USO Club every night at 6 p.m. This 
allows her a quick dinner after her eight-hour day be- 
hind a department-store glove counter, before she 
checks in for her five-hour stint at the club checkroom 
and snack bar. On holidays and vacations, she is on 
duty at the USO twelve hours a day, and she doesn't 
miss a day, 

Mrs. Feeney, who volunteered in December 1941, 
and has had continuous charge of the checking and 
snack bar hostesses ever since, has recently completed 
her 8,860th hour of USO service. 

Former Staff Sergeant George G, Fallick liked an At- 
lantic City USO dub so much he came back after dis- 
charge, as a volunteer worker. Here he Is checking Pfc. 
Harry L. Ginsberg's blouse at the club. Both men are 
from the Bronx, New York City. 

are now expressing their appreciation by serving as 
volunteers themselves, helping relieve the wartime 
volunteers and staff workers. 

In the five years of USO, 165,000,000 hours have 
been recorded by its volunteers. Hundreds of them 
have given 5,000 hours or more each to his work, with 
occasional reports showing 8,000 hours, 10,000 and 
higher records of service. 

Young and old participate in volunteer service. 
There are those who serve on committees; senior 
hosts and hostesses, snack bar workers and office 
aides; those who perform such special services as sew- 
ing on buttons or chevrons, managing check rooms, 
planning entertainment, giving information; the 
leaders in arts and crafts classes, dramatics, forums, 
music discussions and athletic activities. 

There are the junior hostesses, who spend long 
hours dancing; who organize picnics or swimming 
parties; who are trained not to look for romance in 
USO clubs, but to be gracious and charming to all; 
who make the clubs places of fun and good fellow- 

And there are youngsters who also find useful things 
to do - — boys, who empty ash trays, help in check 
rooms, or run errands; girls, who make cookies and 
candy, wash dishes and help in many other ways to 
relieve older sisters and mothers. 

As much as the USO is indebted to its volunteers, 
rarely have they in turn failed to express their appre- 
ciation of this opportunity to give voluntary service. 
Take the case of one mother in an upstate New York 

community whose son was killed. She came to a USO 
club and offered to do something behind the scene, 
like washing dishes, because she did not feel like meet- 
ing people, yet wanted to do something for the boys 
and girls in service. Wash dishes she did, for nearly 
a whole year, until suddenly she found she was not 
alone. She WAS with people. She WAS talking with 
other women. She had come out of her emptiness and 
loneliness through service. 

The story of the USO volunteer has become one of 
the more thrilling chapters in the history of coopera- 
tion between American races, creeds and groups. 


In the five months since V-J Day, USO has been 
going through a period of reconversion. There have 
been drastic changes in the quantity, character and 
location of the operations. 

The USO programs have had to keep in tune with 
the whole demobilization program of the Army and 
Navy, Fully half of the men and women in the Armed 
Forces have been discharged, but over 6,000,000 are 
still in service, and new inductees are going into ser- 
vice every day. 

In many communities club attendance figures, in- 
stead of going down, have reached new highs since 
V-J Day. This has been true particularly on the 
Pacific coast, where each month's attendance in one 
city alone has increased by 160,000. 

There are two principal reasons for this. In the 
first place, it is obvious that the faster the rate of dis- 
charge the more men there are in separation centers 
and on the move across the country. Secondly, there 
is a liberalized policy in granting passes and fur- 
loughs to a greatly increased proportion of the men. 
As a result, a given club may experience a greater 
load from a camp now accommodating 10,000 service 
men than it previously received from the same camp 
when it was filled to the maximum capacity of 50,000. 


The time has come to give a definite answer to the 
question, "When will the USO consider its wartime 
mission accomplished and terminate its operations?" 

The American people themselves, whose sons and 
daughters the USO has served, who have contributed 
$200,000,000 towards its support, have the right to 
know how much longer the USO will operate and 
bow much further financing will therefore be needed. 

The Army and Navy require the answer in order to 


USO-sponsored Home Hospitality does much to help restore self -confidence and ease of social contacl to the wounded 
veterans at Newton D. Baker General Hospital, Martinsburg, W. Va. Here a group of Purple Heart heroes are tackling 
a sumptuous turkey dinner at the country farm of Dr. and Mrs. H. S. Whitacre. Almost every Sunday the Whitacres, in 
cooperation with the Martinsburg USO Club, welcome a Gl contingent ar their "country USO." 


At Zamboanga, Mindanao, in the Philippines, service men crowd around the platform and even perch on the bamboo 
stockade when Joe E. Brown comes to town with USO-Camp Shows. 

plan completely for the tasks of occupation, hospital 
care, demohilization, and peacetime military and 
naval operation. 

The USO itself, and its six member agencies, need 
to know in order to administer effectively and econom- 
ically the liquidation of a complex and international 
structure of staff, equipment and plant. 

And finally, the question is of major personal in- 
terest to at least half a million USO volunteers — men 
and women in every State and in overseas territories 
whose selfless and never-ending labors have been the 
essence of the USO as the service man's "home away 
from home." 

As yet, it is of course impossible to say with any 
degree of assurance or finality how long the "USO" 
type of service should be continued, how that function 
should be fulfilled in a peacetime world, under what 
precise auspices the work should be done, or how it 
may most advantageously be financed. 

These questions cannot be answered until the Army 
and Navy are themselves in a position to say spe- 
cifically what kind and extent of armed forces we 
will have: until the public is prepared to express its 
desires as to what type of relationship should continue 
between the people of our Democracy and the men in 
service; and until the six member agencies of the USO 

have had opportunity to determine in the light of 
changed circumstances what sort of service they wish 
to render the new peacetime Army and Navy, and 
under what conditions. 

The successful conclusion of the war does not, can- 
not, and will not rchirn the United States to its pre- 
war status. New factors of size and of scope have 
entered the picture. 

Quantitatively, we shall not soon again have an 
Army and Navy of merely a quarter of a million men. 
It is clear even now that our armed forces in the post- 
war period must be numbered in the millions — and 
thus present a totally different problem. 

Post-War Morale 

Qualitatively, it is also clear that the national inter- 
est calls for putting our post-war armed forces on the 
highest possible level of morale, not merely in terms 
of professional proficiency, but also in terms of inter- 
national public relations. That our Army and Navy 
should be expert goes without saying. But it is also 
important, if not at once so obvious, that wherever 
the military task lies overseas the spirit and attitude 
of our armed forces will have much to do with the 
spirit and attitude of other countries toward the people 
of these United States. 


The armed forces of the United States have demon- 
strated in the years of winning the war what moist be 
equally true in the years of winning the peace; they 
are ambassadors extraordinary, carrying the authentic 
quality of the American people to the rank and file 
of the people of the world. 

How well they play that role is obviously a ques- 
tion of training and morale. Official studies and tabu- 
lations made by the Army reveal that the number one 
personal sacrifice for three-quarters of their men is 
"leaving home and friends." This heavily underscores 
the value of providing a "home away from home." 

Therefore, the American people themselves must 
face the fact that their armed forces will be far 
greater in number, should be much greater in peace- 
ful influence, and for both reasons must be sustained 
at a high level of morale. 

The TJSO was formed to serve a temporary purpose ; 
it is operating under temporary agreements; and it 

February 4, 1946 

has been financed and supported as a war-related 
organization, wholly devoted to a war-related aim and 
wholly free of any vested interest in self -perpetuation. 
It neither seeks nor shirks any specific responsibility, 
but the particular responsibility it did assume in 1941 
will have been discharged by the end of 1947. 

Therefore, the Executive Committee and Board of 
Directors of USO have unanimously affirmed the fol- 
lowing decision: 

"USO will complete its wartime, demobilization and 
reconversion services December 31, 1947. 

"In the meantime, the member agencies of USO 
which will have peace-time responsibilities in serving 
the armed forces will appraise those responsibilities 
in the light of the future plans of our country for the 
armed forces and, giving consideration to the pattern 
of cooperation set by USO, will determine in what 
fashion those responsibilities can best be discharged." 



The accompanying statements and chart reflect the cost of operation during the calendar year 1945. Although 
the disbursements for 1945 totalled $56,000,000.00, the cost for the fiscal period of the National War Fund, 
which ran from October 1, 1944, to September 30, 1945, amounted to $57,000,000.00. Following V-J Day, USO 
in presenting its cash requirements to the National War Fund for the twelve months following September 30, 
1945, reduced its approved budget by an amount of $10,000,000.00 and asked only $52,000,000.00. Later, the 
National War Fund deemed it advisable to make the 1945 appeal its last and to finance its member agencies to 
December 31, 1946. The estimated cash requirements of USO projected for this 15 months period totaled 
$61,000,000.00. It now seems possible for USO to reduce its estimated cash requirements during this extended 
period by an additional $5,000,000.00, thus effecting an over-all reduction of $15,000,000.00. 

USO will conduct its own campaign next September and October with a goal sufficient to cover minimum 
service requirements through 1947. 

for the Period from January 24, 1941 to December 31, 1945 

CONTRIBUTIONS $184,218,491.00 

January 24, 1941 to December 31, 1944 $127,216,481.00 

Calendar Year 1945 57,002,010.00 

expenditures 179,316,254.00 

January 24, 1941 to December 31, 1944 $122,463,151.00 

Calendar Year 1945 56,853,103.00 


Allocated as follows : 

Imprest Funds and Advances $ 3,027,761.00 

Member Agencies $ 2,024,415.00 

Others 1,003,346.00 

Inventory of Supplies 114,220.00 

Net Operating Cash 1,760,256.00 

Cash in Banks $ 2,288,496.00 

Less: 528,240.00 

Reserve for Property Restoration $500,000.00 

Federal Income Tax Withheld, etc 28,240.00 

Total as above $ 4,902,237.00 


for the Calendar Years 1944 and 1945 


Agency Unit Operations $22,135,973.88 $20,825,455.00 

Mobile Field Operations 1,322,485.74 1,136,767.00 

Overseas Unit Operations 2,587,709.76 3,300,874.00 

Overseas Advances charged as Prior Year Expenses (255,086.29) (173,755.00) 

Community Conducted Operations 4,155,579.26 4,385,796.00 

USO-Camp Shows, Inc 10,129,000.00 16,607,523.00 

Program and Religious Materials 2,014,298.29 1,568,322.00 

Special Program Personnel Expense 457,822.51 384,600.00 

Training 410,034.42 312,042.00 

Total $42,957,817.57 $48,347,624.00 


Automobiles $ 273,464.25 $ 124,387.00 

Equipment and Improvements of 

USO Occupied Buildings 3,175,080.34 1,864,769.00 

Total $ 3.448.544.59 $ 1,989,156.00 


Automobiles $ 96,264.01 $ 224,915.00 

Equipment and Renovations of 

USO Occupied Buildings 1,366,090.24 1,358,165.00 

Total $ 1,462.354.25 $ 1.583.080.00 


Regional Supervision — U. S. A $ 1,841 .815.25 $ 1.948.998.00 

Overseas Supervision — Headquarters 211,092.71 158,166.00 

Public Information Service 292,045.87 285,663.00 

Insurance .,. 327,438.45 287,042.00 

Accounting and Auditing 472.813.08 500.365.00 

General Administration 2,066,907.07 1.986.622.00 

Total $ $ 5.166.856.00 


Gross Expenditures $53,108,730.09 $57,126,108.00 

Less — Income 

Proceeds from Sale of Equipment $ 50.440.40 $ 259,635.00 

Cash Discounts 14.059.06 13.370.00 

Total $ 64,499.46 $ 273,005.00 

net expenditures $53,044,230.63 $56,853,103.00 

Note: The figures presented above for the calendar year 1945 reflect actual expenditures for eleven months ended November 30, 1945, 
estimated Agency expenditures for the month of December and estimated Overseas Department expenditures for the months of Novem- 
ber and December. The figures presented above for the calendar year 1944 have been adjusted in accordance with accounting practices 
used during 1945; however, the "Net Expenditures" total has not been affected. 

The accounts of United Service Organizations, Inc. are tinder continual examination and audit by Messrs. Lybrand, Ross Bros, and 
Montgomery, Certified Public Accountants. The foregoing statement has not been specifically reviewed by the Auditors, however, since 
the fiscal period used for auditing purposes ends at June 30th. An audit as of June 30, 1945 was completed by Lybrand, Ross Bros, and 
Montgomery and the certified Report of Audit dated November 14, 1945 was distributed to the Members of the Board of Directors. 

Issued by the Comptroller. December 31. 1945. 




Number of Entertainers Sent Overseas 
* =50 

1942 ***$ 195 

1943 *********** *$ 642 

1944 ***************************$ 1389 

1945 **************************************************** ***i 2776 

Average number of shows in United States (Per Month) 
Jit =200 

1942 AStStS 732 

1943 ££AAAAA£A£^£A£aAAA£A£A 4389 

1944 A4tAA4t4tAift44titA4iAA!tfitfti; 3760 

1945 2644 

Number of Entertainment Troupes Sent Overseas 

1942 2*3 26 

1943 • 126 

1944 x x x z x x z x x x x x ± z x x inin'iH II? 255 


★ ★ ★ 



★ ★ ★ 

Mits. Maurice T. Mm ire. Chairman 

Stale Chairmen and 
V ice-Chairmen: 


Whit Windham. Birmingham 


J. Walter Thalheimer, Phoenix 
Mrs. Harold Steinfeld. Tucson 


W. M. Shepherd. Pine Bluff 

Mrs. George C. Packard Sr., Fort Smith 

CALIFORNIA (Northern) 

Walter D. Heller. San Francisco 
Mrs. Barlett Heard, Berkeley 

CALIFORNIA (Southern) 
A.J. Cock, Los Angeles 
Mrs. Thomas R. Knudsen, Clendale 

J. K. Weckbaugh, Denver 
Mrs. Spencer Penrose, 
Colorado Springs 

Oliver V. Ober. New Haven 

William K. Palon, Dover 
Mrs. J. C. Killoran, Wilmington 

Sidney F. Taliaferro, Washington 
Mrs. Albert W. Atwood, Washington 


S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville 

K. I'. I alialrrro, Tampa 

James Donn, Miami 

Frank D. Moor, Tallahassee 

Lee Graham, Gainesville 

T. S. Kennedy, Pensacola 


Donald Oberdorfer, Atlanta 
Mrs. Howard See, Atlanta 

J. L. Driaooll, Boise 
Mrs. 0. W. Edmonde, Coeur d'Alene 

Newton Farr, Chicago 


Clarence W. Goris, Gary 

Members at Large 

Mrs. Margaret Ctilkin Banning 
Mrs. Mary McLeod Belhune 
Mrs. Lindsay Bradford 
Mr*. J 'ib n \V. liricker 
Mrs. Ralph Earle 


Eskil C. Carlson. Des Moines 
Mrs. Fred Moore, Des Moines 

W. D. Jochems, Wichita 
Mrs. Porter Brown, Salina 


Harper Gallon, Madisonville 

C. Ellis Henican, New Orleans 
Mrs. W. Murray Werner. Shreveport 

Cyril M. Joly. Waterville 
Miss Ruth Clough. Bangor 


Allen B. Reed, Aberdeen 

Mrs. Hugo Dalsheimer, Baltimore 

Robert T. P. Storer, Boston 
Mrs. L. Cushing Goodhue, Boston 

Ralph Hayward, Kalamazoo 
Mrs. Harry Lombard, Detroit 


Thomas L, Daniels, Minneapolis 
Mrs. Walter P. DrUcoll, Si. Paul 
Mrs. John S. Dalrymple, Minneapolis 


Col. Alexander Fitz-Hugh, Vicksburg 
Mrs. Marion Helgason, Vicksburg 


Walter W. Head, St. Louis 

Mrs. Eugene R. McCarthy, St. Louis 

Thomas J. Davis, Butte 
Mrs. M. C. Gallagher, Billings 


W. C. Fraser, Omaha 

Mrs. Robert G. Simmons, Lincoln 


Mrs. Sallie Springmeyer, Reno 


Dr. J. Duane Squires, New London 
Mrs. John McLane, Manchester 

Col. Franklin D'Olier, Newark 
A. F. Jaques, Newark 
Mrs. J. Russell Parsons, Jr., 
Llewellyn Park 

Thomas J. Mabry, Santa Fe 
Mrs. Jefferson D. Atwood, Roswell 

NEW YORK (Upper) 
H. E. Hovey. Geneva 
Mrs. Wesley M. Angle, Rochester 
Mrs. Herbert August, Troy 

NEW YORK (Metropolitan) 
Basil Harris. New York City 
Fred J. Munder, Huntington 

Mrs. Randall LeBoeuf, Jr., 

Old Westbury 
Mrs. R. V. Lewis Jr., Tarrytown 
Mrs. Dwight Hoover, New City, 

Rockland County 


Howard Holderness, Greensboro 


Ralph A. Trubey, Fargo 


Harvey S. Firestone Jr., Akron 
Robert F, Milar, Akron 


Neal Barrett, Oklahoma City 
Mrs. R. L. Howard, Tulsa 

E. B. MacNaughton, Portland 
Mrs. S. Mason Ehrman, Portland 

George Gable, Altoona 
Mrs. James W. Winn, Altoona 
Mrs. Edward C. Page, Philadelphia 

R. K, Wise, Columbia 
Mrs. Fred Attaway, Charleston 
Mrs. Arney R. Childs, Columbia 
Mrs. John F. Morrall, Beaufort 

Mrs. H. A. Ditmanson, Sioux Falls 


Col. T. Walker Lewis, Memphis 


Dr. Umphrey Lee, Dallas 
Charles Paxton, Sweetwater 
Dr. D. M, Wiggins, El Paso 

Mrs. James Potter Brown, Pawtuckel 
Paul J. Robin, Providence 


Earl J, Glade, Salt Lake City 
Mrs. Lynn H. Thompson, 
Salt Lake City 

Esme A. C, Smith, Rutland 
Mrs. Margaret Ferguson, Rutland 


W. Stirling King. Richmond 
Mrs. Frederic R. Scott, Richmond 


Richard E. Talbot, Charleston 


Ernest E. Henry, Spokane 


Albert S. Puelicher, Milwaukee 
Mrs. James Bergstrom, Neenah 

W. 0. Wilson, Cheyenne 
Mrs. James A. Greenwood, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Marshall Field 

Mrs. Basil Harris 

Mrs. George Frederick Jewett 

Mrs. Arthur Lehman 

Mrs. Oswald B. Lord 

Mrs. Vance McCormick 
Mis. Dwight W. Morrow 
Mrs. Robert S. Pirie 
Mrs. Hermann G. Place 
Mrs. John T. Pratt 
Mrs. Sumner Sewall 

Mrs. Harper Sibley 
Mrs. Ruber I Snowden 
C. C. Spaiilding 
Mrs. Rush St urges 
Dr. Charles H. Wesley 
Mrs. Clay Williams 







Mrs. Wintkrop W. Aldrick 
Mrs. Arthur Forrest Anderson 
Mrs. Alfred R. Bachracli 
Chester I. Barnard 
Eugene E. Barnett 
Mrs. William S. Bowen 
Lindsay Bradford 
John S. Burke 

Right Rev. Msgr. Howard J. Carroll 

Rev. Dr. Samuel McCrea Cavert 

Judge Hubert T. Delany 

Mrs. Harrison S. Elliott 

Miss Mary Graham Hawks 

Mrs. Walter E. Heller 

John F. Hickey 

Walter Hoving 

Mrs. Henry A. fngraham 


Charles Johnson 
Lindsley F. Kimball 
Louis Kraft 

Randall J. LeBoeuf, Jr. 

Mrs. Edward W. Mauy 

Sea bury C. Mastick 

Francis P. Matthews 

Miss Bertha McCall 

Most Rev. Bryan J. McEntegart, D.D. 

Comm. Donald McMillan 

Hobart Mcpherson 

C. G. Michalis 

James S. Mitchell 

Mrs. Maurice T. Moore 

Mrs. Dwight W. Morrow 

Comm. Edward J. Parker 

Brig. William J. Parkins 

Rev. Dr. David de Sola Pool 

Mrs. Harold L Pratt 

Comm. E. I. Pugmire 

John J. Raskob 

John T. Remey 

W. Spencer Robertson 

John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

Mrs. S. J. Rosensohn 

Thomas J, Ross 

Walter Rothschild 

John Stelle 

Harper Sibley 

Wal bridge S. Taft 

Jay A. Urice 

Thomas J. Watson 

Frank L. Weil 


Honorary Chairman 
John- D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

Chairman of the Board 
Walter Hoving 

Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Harper Sibley 

Chairman-, Executive Committee 
Chester I. Barnard 

Lindsley F. Kimball 

Mrs, Henry A. Ingraham 
Randall J. LeBoeuf, Jr. 

Francis P. Matthews 
Comm. Donald McMillan 
W. Spencer Robertson 
Frank L. Weil 

C. Frank Kramer, Jr. 

John F. Hickey 






Dear USO - 

I'm writing this letter to you fo express my appreciation for what the USO has done lor me. 

I'm a civilian now. I was discharged yesterday, but I leel I would like to say something favorable lo USO. By me, 
you've done a great job. While I was in America I spent many evenings, pleasant evenings af USO clubs in many camps 
in the States. Without those clubs, army life would have been almost unbearable for me. What would I have done on 
my weekend passes — walk the streets, around and around, batted my head against a brick wall, if it weren't lor the USO. 

Then the USO didn't stop there. At railroad stations the friendly hand of the USO gave me food and coffee. How 
wonderful it is to remember those days when I arrived at a railroad terminal on some mighty cold winter evenings and 
found many a piping hot cup of coffee awaiting lor me. That hit the spbJ — and my heart. 

Over in Europe, before and after the war, many a time the USO shows kept my morale up. And brother, you don't 
know how hard it is for a Gl to have morale over there. 

And last, I want to thank the hosfesses in the USO for making my last time in a USO a most pleasant and satisfying 
experience. Good luck to you, and I hope you continue to get the support from the public as befits a most beneficial 


Ex-Pfc, U. S. Army 














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